Volume depletion in adults

Last reviewed: 1 Sep 2022
Last updated: 17 Mar 2022

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • postural dizziness
  • weight loss
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • postural tachycardia
  • signs of shock
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • decreased urine output
  • diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • melena
  • hematochezia
  • high-volume gastrointestinal drainage
  • polyuria
  • poor oral intake
  • severe sweating
  • burns
  • intestinal obstruction
  • severe pancreatitis
  • crush injuries
  • intra-abdominal bleeding
  • fatigue
  • thirst
  • dry mucous membranes
  • muscle cramps
  • abdominal pain
  • chest pain
  • confusion
  • decreased skin turgor
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • diuretic therapy
  • chronic kidney disease
  • older adult
  • altered mental status
  • high ambient temperature
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CBC
  • serum electrolytes
  • blood glucose
  • BUN
  • serum creatinine
  • lactate
  • procalcitonin
  • urinalysis
  • random urine sodium
  • fractional excretion of sodium (FENa)
  • random urine chloride
  • random urine creatinine
  • random urine osmolality
  • rectal exam and fecal occult blood test
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • urine urea/fractional excretion of urea (FE urea)
  • arterial blood gases
  • nasogastric lavage
  • stool cultures
  • abdominal ultrasound
  • abdominal CT scan
  • upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • colonoscopy
More investigations to consider

Emerging tests

  • saliva osmolality
  • point-of-care magnetic relaxometry

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

hemorrhagic losses

gastrointestinal nonhemorrhagic losses: vomiting and/or diarrhea

excessive diuresis

skin losses

third-space sequestration

pulmonary losses: bronchorrhea or draining pleural effusion

sustained inadequate oral intake

Contributors

Authors

Alonso Marquez, MD

Research Assistant

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension

Northwestern University

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

AM declares that he has no competing interests.

Syed K. Haque, MD

Research Associate

Northwestern University

Feinberg School of Medicine

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

SKH is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Daniel Batlle, MD

Professor

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension

Department of Internal Medicine

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

DB is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Acknowledgements

Dr Alonso Marquez, Dr Syed K. Haque, and Dr Daniel Batlle would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Maria Aurora Posadas Salas, Dr Jason Eckel, and Dr Arthur Greenberg, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

MPS, JE, and AG declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Nitin Kolhe, MD

Renal Consultant

Infection Control Lead for Medical Directorate

Derby City Hospital

Derby

UK

Disclosures

NK declares that he has no competing interests.

Irfan Moinuddin, MD

Assistant Professor

Chicago Medical School

Rosalind Franklin University

Lombard

IL

Disclosures

IM declares that he has no competing interests.

Manish Suneja, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Internal Medicine

Division of Nephrology

University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics

Iowa City

IA

Disclosures

MS declares that he has no competing interests.

Judith H. Veis, MD

Associate Director

Nephrology

Washington Hospital Center

Washington

DC

Disclosures

JHV declares that she has no competing interests.

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