Last reviewed: 8 Apr 2021
Last updated: 22 Jun 2018




  • Dyslexia
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Absence epilepsy
  • Social (pragmatic) communication disorder


  • Dyscalculia
  • Specific language disorder
  • Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD)
  • Developmental coordination disorder/dyspraxia
  • Prader-Willi syndrome
  • Angelman syndrome
  • William syndrome
  • Rett syndrome
  • DiGeorge syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome)
  • Turner syndrome
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis
  • Congenital rubella
  • Teratogenic drugs
  • Extreme preterm birth
  • Perinatal hypoxia
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Brain tumor
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Hypoxia/asphyxia
  • Congenital hypothyroidism
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
  • Psychosocial deprivation
  • Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome)
  • Epileptic encephalopathies
  • 15q11 duplication syndromes
  • 16p11.2 deletion syndrome


Director of Pediatric Neurology

Cortica | Advanced Neurological Therapies for Autism

San Diego 



KAS is Director of Pediatric Neurology at Cortica, a healthcare provider for children with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. He serves as an advisor to NovoNordisk on studies evaluating cognition and neurodevelopment in individuals with hemophilia, and to Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals on long-term cognitive followup of children treated for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

Dr Kevin A. Shapiro would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jeremy Parr, the previous contributor to this monograph. JP is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Consultant in Paediatric Neurodisability

Evelina Children's Hospital

St Thomas' Hospital




PG declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

Department of Pediatrics

Research Director

Starlight Pediatrics

University of Rochester Medical Center




SHJ declares that she has no competing interests.

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