Last reviewed: 15 Sep 2021
Last updated: 09 Sep 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Fever
  • Heavy physical exertion
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Urologic hemorrhage
  • Orthostatic proteinuria
  • Minimal change disease
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  • Membranous nephropathy
  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • IgA nephropathy
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Postinfectious glomerulonephritis
  • Acute tubular injury
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Urinary tract obstruction
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Hypertension
  • Medium- and small-vessel vasculitis
  • Rhabdomyolysis (myoglobinuria)

Uncommon

  • Pregnancy
  • Amyloidosis
  • Light and heavy chain deposition diseases
  • Fibrillary and immunotactoid glomerulopathy
  • Antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease (Goodpasture syndrome)
  • Fanconi syndrome
  • Cystic kidney disease
  • Hypercalciuria
  • Dent disease
  • Aristolochic acid nephropathy
  • Light chain cast nephropathy
  • Fabry disease
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
  • Scleroderma renal crisis
  • Heavy metal poisoning
  • Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis
  • Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits
  • Polymyositis
  • Renal vein thrombosis

Contributors

Authors

Sana Waheed, MD

Staff Nephrologist

Piedmont Nephrology and Internal Medicine

Atlanta

GA

Disclosures

SW declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Sana Waheed would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Derek M. Fine and Dr C. John Sperati, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

DMF is an author of a reference cited in this topic. CJS declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Mark Perazella, MD

Associate Professor

Yale University School of Medicine

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

MP declares that he has no competing interests.

Arif Showkat, MD, FASN

Assistant Professor

Division of Nephrology

University of Tennessee

Memphis

TN

Disclosures

AS declares that he has no competing interests.

Guy Neild, MD, FRCP, FRCPath

Professor of Nephrology

Institute of Urology and Nephrology

University College London

London

UK

Disclosures

GN declares that he has no competing interests.

Frederick Tam, MBBS

Senior Lecturer in Renal Medicine

Division of Medicine

Imperial College London

UK

Disclosures

FT has received travelling grants from Amgen, MSD, Novartis, and Roche to attend International Nephrology conferences. He has also received research grants from Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council UK, Baxter Biosciences, and Roche Palo Alto. He has also provided consultancy to research work with GE Healthcare and Baxter Biosciences.

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