A very common cause of gastroenteritis in the developed world, and invasive disease in the developing world.
Salmonella enterica causes both sporadic infections and outbreaks of disease.
Almost any food product can be contaminated, but outbreaks are most commonly due to poultry, dairy items such as raw milk, and undercooked eggs. Outbreaks associated with ingestion of peanut products and raw produce such as sprouts have been described. Reptile exposure also has been associated with the development of the disease.
The clinical presentation is most commonly a self-limited gastroenteritis.
Diagnosis relies on isolation of the organism from stool cultures or by detection of pathogen-specific nucleic acid.
Treatment includes fluid and electrolyte replacement; antibiotics are typically reserved for patients with risk factors for developing more severe disease or extraintestinal complications.
Nontyphoidal salmonellosis most commonly manifests as a self-limited gastroenteritis. It is caused by Salmonella, a genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae named after the pathologist Daniel E. Salmon. Although first described within animals, Salmonella can colonize and infect humans as well. Their microbiologic characteristics include being gram-negative, nonspore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacilli. The nontyphoidal Salmonella species includes all species and serotypes of Salmonella enterica excluding S Typhi and S Paratyphi, the causes of enteric fever. This monograph discusses diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteritis caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella.
History and exam
- food exposures
- extremes of age (<12 months and >50 years)
- presence of an immunosuppressive state
- low gastric acidity
- exposure to symptomatic person with Salmonella
- animal contact
- use of antibiotics
- poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
- chronic granulomatous disease
- iron overload
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
University of California San Diego
MP declares that he has no competing interests.
Chief of Infectious Diseases
Departments of Medicine and Pathology
University of California San Diego School of Medicine
JF is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.
Dr Michael Preziosi and Dr Joshua Fierer would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Nancy F. Crum-Cianflone, a previous contributor to this monograph. NFCC declares that she has no competing interests.
Chief Medical Officer
Director of Food Safety and Security
US Food and Drug Administration
DA declares that he has no competing interests.
Deputy State Epidemiologist
Communicable and Environmental Disease Services
Tennessee Department of Health
TJ declares that he has no competing interests.
Head of Division
Division for Public Health
Austrian Agency for Health & Food Safety
FA declares that he has no competing interests.
Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer