Salmonellosis

Last reviewed: 24 Apr 2022
Last updated: 30 Jul 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • nausea/vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • fever
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • myalgias
  • headache
  • abdominal tenderness
  • signs of volume depletion
  • hyperactive bowel sounds
  • family history of Salmonella infection
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • food exposures
  • extremes of age (<12 months and >50 years)
  • presence of an immunosuppressive state
  • low gastric acidity
  • exposure to symptomatic person with Salmonella
  • animal contact
  • use of antibiotics
  • poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
  • chronic granulomatous disease
  • iron overload
  • malnutrition
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • stool studies
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • blood cultures
  • imaging studies
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

gastroenteritis

ONGOING

chronic carrier state

Contributors

Authors

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD, FACP
William A. Petri, Jr

Wade Hampton Frost Professor of Epidemiology

Professor of Medicine, Microbiology, and Pathology

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health

University of Virginia

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

WAP declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr William A Petri would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael Preziosi, Dr Joshua Fierer, and Dr Nancy F. Crum-Cianflone, previous contributors to this topic. JF and NFCC are authors of references cited in this topic. MP declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

David Acheson, MD

Chief Medical Officer

Director of Food Safety and Security

US Food and Drug Administration

Rockville

MD

Disclosures

DA declares that he has no competing interests.

Timothy Jones, MD

Deputy State Epidemiologist

Communicable and Environmental Disease Services

Tennessee Department of Health

Nashville

TN

Disclosures

TJ declares that he has no competing interests.

Franz Allerberger, MD, MPH

Head of Division

Division for Public Health

Austrian Agency for Health & Food Safety

Vienna

Austria

Disclosures

FA declares that he has no competing interests.

  • Differentials

    • Shigellosis
    • Campylobacter species infection
    • Yersiniosis
    More Differentials
  • Guidelines

    • 2017 Infectious Disease Society of America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea
    • 2017 Infectious Disease Society of America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea
    More Guidelines
  • Patient leaflets

    Diarrhea in adults

    Diarrhea in children

    More Patient leaflets
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