Colorectal polyps

Last reviewed: 9 Nov 2022
Last updated: 18 Nov 2022

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • family history
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • rectal bleeding
  • mucus discharge
  • weight loss
  • tenesmus
  • change in bowel habit
  • symptoms and signs of anemia
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • increasing age
  • family history of colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps
  • previous history of polyps
  • male sex
  • acromegaly
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • colonoscopy
  • CT colonography
  • chromoendoscopy
  • histology
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • flexible sigmoidoscopy
More investigations to consider

Emerging tests

  • autofluorescence
  • cap-assisted colonoscopy
  • virtual chromoendoscopy techniques

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

suitable for endoscopic resection

unsuitable for endoscopic resection

Contributors

Authors

Edward T. Pring, FRCS

Specialty Registrar

University College Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

ETP declares that he has no competing interests.

Laura E. Gould, MRCS

Specialty Registrar

St Mark’s Hospital

Harrow

UK

Disclosures

LEG declares that she has no competing interests.

George Malietzis, PhD, FRCS

Consultant General and Colorectal Surgeon

Mediterranean Hospital

Cyprus

Honorary Clinical Lecturer

Department of Surgery and Cancer

Imperial College London

London

UK

Disclosures

GM declares that he has no competing interests.

Ioanna Drami, MRCS

Specialty Registrar

St Mark’s Hospital

Harrow

UK

Disclosures

ID declares that she has no competing interests.

Dinh Mai, MRCS

Specialty Registrar

St Mark’s Hospital

Harrow

UK

Disclosures

DM declares that he has no competing interests.

John T. Jenkins, MD

Consultant Colorectal Surgeon

Department of Coloproctology

St. Mark's Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

JTJ declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Edward T. Pring, Dr Laura E. Gould, Dr George Malietzis, Dr Ioanna Drami, Dr Dinh Mai, and Dr John T. Jenkins would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Phil Tozer, a previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

PT declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

John Anderson, FRCS

Consultant Colorectal Surgeon

Glasgow Royal Infirmary

Glasgow

UK

Disclosures

JA declares that he has no competing interests.

Sharon Stein, MD

Assistant Professor of Surgery

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery

University Hospital Case Medical Center

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

SS received a fee for educational courses on laparoscopic surgery, paid for in part by Covidien, Olympus, and Applied Medical.

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