Last reviewed: 21 Sep 2021
Last updated: 20 Oct 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • acanthosis nigricans
  • polyuria
  • polydipsia
  • nocturia

Other diagnostic factors

  • hypertension
  • yeast infections
  • skin infections
  • urinary tract infections
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • weight loss

Risk factors

  • obesity
  • genetic predisposition/family history
  • African-American, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian or Pacific Islander
  • puberty
  • female sex
  • small for gestational age
  • rapid growth in infancy
  • diabetic in-utero environment
  • bottle feeding
  • high protein intake in infancy
  • polycystic ovaries
  • intramyocellular lipid content
  • fat deposition in the liver

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • urine dipstick
  • random plasma glucose
  • fasting plasma glucose
  • HbA1c
  • autoantibodies to insulin, islet cell, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and zinc transporter 8

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Jennifer Miller, MD
Jennifer Miller

Assistant Professor

Department of Pediatrics

University of Florida

Gainesville

FL

Disclosures

JM is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Chelsea Zimmerman, MD

Clinical Physician

Pediatric Endocrinology

Endocrinology and Metabolism of East Alabama

Opelika

AL

Disclosures

Acknowledgements

Dr Jennifer Miller and Dr Chelsea Zimmerman would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Arlan Rosenbloom and Dr Paul Hiers, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

AR is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. PH declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Julian P. Hamilton-Shield, MB, ChB, MD(Bristol), MRCP, FRCPCH, FRCPCH

Professor

Diabetes and Metabolic Endocrinology

School of Clinical Sciences

University of Bristol

UK

Disclosures

In the past, JPHS received speaking honoraria from Sanofi-Aventis, Roche, Abbott, Novo-Nordisk, and Nutricia. None of these talks were directly pertinent to the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Kristen Nadeau, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

University of California

Sacramento

CA

Disclosures

KN declares that she has no competing interests.

Dennis Styne, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Rumsey Chair of Pediatric Endocrinology

University of California

Sacramento

CA

Disclosures

DS declares that he has no competing interests.

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