Last reviewed: 28 Oct 2020
Last updated: 13 Sep 2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • acanthosis nigricans
  • polyuria
  • polydipsia
  • nocturia

Other diagnostic factors

  • hypertension
  • yeast infections
  • skin infections
  • urinary tract infections
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • weight loss

Risk factors

  • obesity
  • genetic predisposition/family history
  • African-American, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian or Pacific Islander
  • puberty
  • female sex
  • small for gestation age
  • rapid growth in infancy
  • diabetic in-utero environment
  • bottle feeding
  • high protein intake in infancy
  • polycystic ovaries
  • intramyocellular lipid content
  • fat deposition in the liver

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • urine dipstick
  • random plasma glucose
  • fasting plasma glucose
  • HbA1c
  • autoantibodies to insulin, islet cell, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and zinc transporter 8
More 1st investigations to order

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Pediatric Endocrinology Fellow

Department of Pediatrics

University of Florida

Gainesville

FL

Disclosures

PH declares that he has no competing interests.

Jennifer Miller

Assistant Professor

Department of Pediatrics

University of Florida

Gainesville

FL

Disclosures

JM is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Dr Paul Hiers and Dr Jennifer Miller wish to gratefully acknowledge Dr Arlan Rosenbloom, a previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

AR is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Professor

Diabetes and Metabolic Endocrinology

School of Clinical Sciences

University of Bristol

UK

Disclosures

In the past, JPHS received speaking honoraria from Sanofi-Aventis, Roche, Abbott, Novo-Nordisk, and Nutricia. None of these talks were directly pertinent to the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Professor of Pediatrics

University of California

Sacramento

CA

Disclosures

KN declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor of Pediatrics

Rumsey Chair of Pediatric Endocrinology

University of California

Sacramento

CA

Disclosures

DS declares that he has no competing interests.

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