Can be clinically categorized into uncomplicated/complicated, acute, or recurrent.
Escherichia coli is the most common organism in uncomplicated infections.
Costovertebral angle tenderness together with fever suggests pyelonephritis.
Diagnosed using urine dipstick, microscopic urinalysis (bacteria, white blood cell, red blood cell), and urine culture.
Antibiotic selection should be guided by local bacterial susceptibilities and guidelines, or based on known urine culture and sensitivity.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the kidneys, bladder, or urethra. Infectious cystitis is the most common type of UTI, which is caused by a bacterial infection of the bladder. Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidney that often occurs via bacterial ascent, and urethritis is an infection causing an inflammation of the urethra.
History and exam
Una J. Lee, MD
Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery
Section of Urology and Renal Transplantation
Virginia Mason Medical Center
UJL declares that she has no competing interests.
Dr Una J. Lee would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Elliot Blau for his contribution to this monograph, and Dr Bhavin N. Patel and Dr Howard B. Goldman, previous contributors to this topic.
EB, BNP, and HBG declare that they have no competing interests.
Priyanka Sharma, MD
Cleveland Clinic Foundation
PS declares that she has no competing interests.
Timothy J. Benton, MD
Associate Residency Director
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
TJB declares that he has no competing interests.
Paul Little, BA (Oxon), MBBS, MRCP, MSc, FRCGP, MD
Professor of Primary Care Research
Community Clinical Sciences Division
University of Southampton
PL declares that he has no competing interests.
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