Evaluation of cyanosis in the newborn

Last reviewed: 1 Nov 2023
Last updated: 22 Aug 2023

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Transposition of great arteries
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Pulmonary atresia
  • Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
  • Transient tachypnea of the newborn
  • Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
  • Pneumothorax
  • Aspiration pneumonia
  • Pneumonia
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM; formerly known as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation [CCAM])
  • Upper airway obstruction
  • Polycythemia
  • Asphyxia
  • Methemoglobinemia (met-Hb)
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Neonatal sepsis
Full details

Uncommon

  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome or single ventricle physiology states
  • Tricuspid atresia
  • Truncus arteriosus
  • Pulmonary hemorrhage
  • Pulmonary hypoplasia
  • Congenital lobar emphysema
  • Pulmonary lymphangiectasia
  • Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)/esophageal atresia (EA)
  • Pleural effusion
  • Arteriovenous malformation
Full details

Contributors

Authors

Mohan Pammi, MD, PhD, MRCPCH

Associate Professor

Section of Neonatology and Department of Pediatrics

Baylor College of Medicine

Houston

TX

Disclosures

MP received payment for a talk on neonatal COVID-19 in the NICU for Goldline Learning in 2021.

Acknowledgements

Dr Mohan Pammi would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr AnnaMarie Arias-Shah, Dr Robin H. Steinhorn and Dr Ponthenkandath Sasidharan, the previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

AA-S and PS declare that they have no competing interests. RHS is Associate Editor for Journal of Pediatrics. The University of California has received honoraria for Dr Steinhorn from Scientific Therapeutics Information Inc, through Mallinckrodt.

Peer reviewers

Rama Bhat, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Department of Pediatrics

Medical Center

University of Illinois

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

RB declares that he has no competing interests.

Utpala G. Das, MD

Assistant Professor Pediatrics/Neonatology

Medical College of Wisconsin

Milwaukee

WI

Disclosures

UGD declares that she has no competing interests.

Russell Peek, BSc (Hons), MBChB (Hons), MRCPCH

Consultant Paediatrician

Neonatal Unit

Gloucestershire Royal Hospital

Gloucester

UK

Disclosures

RP declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer