Last reviewed: 30 Oct 2020
Last updated: 30 Oct 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Risk factors

  • genetic
  • infection
  • local trauma
  • stress
  • smoking
  • light skin
  • alcohol intake (beer)
  • greater body mass index (BMI)

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Assistant Professor

University of Pisa

Consultant Dermatologist

University Hospital of Pisa

Pisa

Italy

Disclosures

AC has served as an advisory board member and has been reimbursed as a consultant and/or speaker or has participated in clinical trials for AbbVie, Almirall, Fresenius Kabi, Leo Pharma, Lilly, Janssen, Pfizer, Sanofi Genzyme, UCB-Pharma and Novartis; AC is also the author of references cited in this topic.

Dr Andrea Chiricozzi would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr April W. Armstrong and Dr Tsu-Yi Chuang, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

TC declares that he has no competing interests. AWA is an investigator and consultant for Abbott, Amgen, and Janssen; AWA is also the author of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Western Infirmary, Glasgow

Consultant Dermatologist Dermatology

Glasgow

UK

Disclosures

DB is an author of a clinical practice guideline referenced in this topic. DB has been reimbursed as a consultant, researcher, and lecturer for Abbott, Leo, Pfizer, Merck, Janssen-Cilag, and Novartis.

Physician

Department of Dermatology

Kaiser Permanente Vallejo Medical Center

Vallejo

CA

Disclosures

PM declares that she has no competing interests.

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