Last reviewed: March 2020
Last updated: March  2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • breast mass
  • nipple discharge
  • axillary lymphadenopathy

Other diagnostic factors

  • skin thickening or discoloration
  • retraction or scaling of the nipple

Risk factors

  • increasing age
  • female sex
  • ethnic origin
  • positive family history
  • genetic mutations
  • endogenous estrogen exposure
  • exogenous estrogen/progestin exposure
  • reduced physical activity
  • poor diet
  • alcohol consumption
  • radiation exposure
  • high socioeconomic class
  • smoking
  • benign breast disease
  • increased breast density

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • breast ultrasound
  • breast MRI
  • biopsy
  • hormone receptor testing
  • HER2 receptor testing
  • gene expression assays
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Assistant Professor

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

New York

NY

Disclosures

KC declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology

Dubin Breast Center of the Tisch Cancer Institute

New York

NY

Disclosures

AT has participated in speakers' bureau for Pfizer, Celgene, and Amgen.

Dr Krystal Cascetta and Professor Amy Tiersten would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Hope S. Rugo, Dr Amal Melhem-Bertrandt, Dr Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, and Dr Phuong Khanh H. Morrow, the previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

University of Louisville

Louisville

KY

Disclosures

AC declares that she has no competing interests.

General Surgeon

General Surgery Department

Istanbul Training and Research Hospital

Istanbul

Turkey

Disclosures

GC is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Medical Officer

Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Working Group

Division of Cancer Prevention

National Cancer Institute

Bethesda

MD

Disclosures

ERS declares that he has no competing interests.

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