Last reviewed: 24 Jun 2021
Last updated: 01 Mar 2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • normal urine
  • absence of recurrent vomiting
  • absence of diarrhea
  • normal temperature
  • absence of abdominal distention
  • normal tympanic membrane
  • absence of signs of physical trauma

Risk factors

  • infants <5 months of age
  • food sensitivity
  • exposure to cigarette smoke
  • lack of breastfeeding
  • parental psychosocial factors
  • increased parental age
  • high level of parental intelligence and education

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • urinalysis
  • urine culture
  • plain radiograph of a suspected fractured area
  • abdominal radiograph

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Alexander K.C. Leung, MB BS, FRCPC, FRCP, FRCPCH, FAAP
Alexander K.C. Leung

Clinical Professor of Pediatrics

The University of Calgary

Calgary

Alberta

Canada

Disclosures

AKCL is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Jean-François Lemay, MD, FRCPC
Jean-François Lemay

Professor of Pediatrics

The University of Calgary

Calgary

Alberta

Canada

Disclosures

J-FL is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers

Deepak Kamat, MD, PhD

Professor of Pediatrics

Wayne State University

Vice Chair of Education

Director

Institute of Medical Education

The Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics

Children's Hospital of Michigan

Detroit

MI

Disclosures

DK declares that he has no competing interests.

Ellis Hon, MD, FAAP

Professor of Pediatrics

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Sha Tin

New Territories

Hong Kong SAR

The People's Republic of China

Disclosures

EH declares that he has no competing interests.

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