Last reviewed:December 2019
Last updated:October  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • levodopa-unresponsive gait apraxia

Other diagnostic factors

  • cognitive impairment
  • urinary frequency, urgency, or incontinence
  • fecal incontinence

Risk factors

  • age >65 years
  • vascular disease
  • diabetes mellitus

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Richard Adam Grünewald

Consultant Neurologist

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer

Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Sheffield

UK

Disclosures

RAG has chaired a NICE guideline development group on neurological conditions, including recognition of movement disorders associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus. RAG received standard remuneration for chairing a NICE guideline development group. RAG is the author of a paper cited in this topic.

Dr Richard Grünewald would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jeremy Rowe, a previous contributor to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Associate Director

Adult Hydrocephalus Center

Sandra and Malcolm Berman Brain & Spine Institute

Sinai Hospital

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

RW declares that she has no competing interests.

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