Last reviewed: 24 Jan 2021
Last updated: 21 Jun 2018




  • Alzheimer dementia (AD)
  • Vascular dementia
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hypoxic injury after cardiac arrest
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Seizures
  • Migraine
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Mild cognitive impairment


  • Frontotemporal dementia
  • Semantic dementia
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Corticobasal syndrome
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • HIV dementia
  • Neurosyphilis
  • Limbic encephalopathy
  • Hashimoto encephalopathy
  • Transient global amnesia
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome


Professor of Psychiatry

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine




RT declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Rajesh Tampi would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael D. Geschwind, Dr Mee-Ohk Kim, Dr Michael H. Rosenbloom, Dr Steven Z. Chao, and Dr Julie N. Thai, previous contributors to this topic. MDG is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. He serves on the board of directors for San Francisco Bay Area Physicians for Social Responsibility, on the editorial board of Dementia & Neuropsychologia, and serves or has served as a consultant for Best Doctors, Inc; the Gerson Lehrman Group, Inc; Guidepoint Global, LLC; Biohaven Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP; Lundbeck; MEDACorp; NeuroPhage Pharmaceuticals; and Quest Diagnostics. He receives research support from CurePSP, the Michael J. Homer Family Fund, the National Institute on Aging (R01 AGAG031189), Quest Diagnostics, and the Tau Consortium. He receives honorarium from various medical centers for lectures in the field of dementia. M-OK, MHR, SZC, and JNT declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Consultant Psychiatrist and Visiting Professor

University of Hertfordshire



Mental Health Unit

Lister Hospital




OA declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine

Division of Geriatric Medicine

St Louis University

St Louis



AB declares that he has no competing interests.

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