Enuresis

Last reviewed: 21 Apr 2022
Last updated: 17 Jan 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • increased fluid intake at night
  • urinary frequency
  • constipation
  • caffeine and other bladder irritants
  • urinary urgency
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • abnormal voiding habits
  • abnormal breathing pattern at night
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • genetic predisposition
  • constipation
  • upper airway obstruction/sleep-disordered breathing
  • ADHD
  • psychological disorders
  • male sex
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • urinalysis
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • urinary tract ultrasound
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

age <7 years

age ≥7 years

ONGOING

recurrence

Contributors

Authors

Erin C. Grantham, MD

Pediatric Urologist

Department of Urology

Billings Clinic

Billings

MT

Disclosures

ECG declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Erin C. Grantham would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Duncan T. Wilcox and Dr Nicholas G. Cost, the previous contributors to this topic. DTW and NGC declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Prasad Godbole, FRCS, FRCS (Paed), FEAPU

Consultant Paediatric Urologist

Paediatric Surgical Unit

Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust

Western Bank

Sheffield

UK

Disclosures

PG declares that he has no competing interests.

Elizabeth Jackson, MD

Associate Professor

Pediatric Nephrology

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Cincinnati

OH

Disclosures

EJ declares that she has no competing interests.

  • Differentials

    • Congenital abnormality of the urinary tract (e.g., ectopic ureter, ureterocele, and urethral valves)
    • Constipation
    • Diabetes
    More Differentials
  • Guidelines

    • Guidelines on paediatric urology
    • The South African guidelines on enuresis
    More Guidelines
  • Patient leaflets

    Bedwetting

    More Patient leaflets
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