Last reviewed: 28 Oct 2020
Last updated: 26 Aug 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • bilateral cleft lip ± palate
  • unilateral cleft lip ± palate
  • isolated cleft palate
  • microform cleft lip
  • isolated submucous cleft palate
  • positive prenatal ultrasound

Other diagnostic factors

  • difficulty feeding
  • poor weight gain
  • airway obstruction

Risk factors

  • genetic predisposition
  • dysmorphic syndrome
  • anticonvulsant drugs
  • maternal tobacco use
  • maternal alcohol consumption
  • folic acid deficiency

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • auditory brain stem response (ABR) test
  • vertebral spine x-rays
  • renal ultrasound
  • fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH)
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Travis T. Tollefson

Professor and Director

Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Cleft and Craniofacial Team

University of California Davis

Sacramento

CA

Disclosures

TTT has received an honorarium and reimbursement for travel by the AO Foundation for teaching on a facial trauma course. TTT serves on the American Board of Otolaryngology and the American Board of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, and receives a royalty from Thieme publishing for the textbook Complete Cleft Care. TTT is an author of studies referenced in this topic.

David A. Shaye

Instructor

Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Massachusetts Eye and Ear

Harvard University

Boston

MA

Disclosures

DAS has received an honorarium and reimbursement for travel by the AO Foundation for teaching on a facial trauma course.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Assistant Professor to Director

Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Mayo Clinic

Rochester

MN

Disclosures

OF declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Pediatrics

Mayo Clinic

Rochester

MN

Disclosures

PF declares that he has no competing interests.

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