Last reviewed: June 2020
Last updated: December  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • pelvic pain
  • bloating and early satiety
  • palpable adnexal mass

Risk factors

  • premenopausal age group
  • early menarche
  • first trimester of pregnancy
  • personal history of infertility or polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • increased intrinsic or extrinsic gonadotropins
  • tamoxifen therapy
  • smoking
  • personal or family history of endometriosis

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • serum cancer antigen (CA)-125
  • color power Doppler ultrasonography of abdomen/pelvis
  • MRI of abdomen/pelvis
  • CT imaging of abdomen/pelvis
  • karyotype analysis
  • laparoscopy/laparotomy and histopathology
More investigations to consider

Emerging tests

  • PET imaging of abdomen/pelvis
  • serum biomarkers (ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system)
More emerging tests

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Michael P. Hopkins

Professor and Chairman

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Northeast Ohio Medical University

Aultman Health Foundation OB/GYN Residency

Canton

OH

Disclosures

MPH declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Michael P. Hopkins would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Christina N. Kufel, Dr Lauren M. Blue, Dr Jay R. Patibandla, and Dr Laura K. Randolph, previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Consultant in Family Medicine

Parker D Sanders and Isabella Sanders Professor of Primary Care

Rochester

MN

Disclosures

JB declares that he has no competing interests.

Chair

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Virginia Commonwealth University

Richmond

VA

Disclosures

DC declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist

Birmingham Women's Hospital

Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

TJC declares that he has no competing interests.

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