Gastroparesis

Last reviewed: 22 Aug 2023
Last updated: 31 May 2023

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • postprandial fullness
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • early satiety
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • epigastric pain
  • fullness
  • bloating
  • weight loss
  • succussion splash
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • diabetes mellitus
  • previous gastric and pancreatic surgery
  • female sex
  • achalasia
  • atrophic gastritis
  • functional dyspepsia
  • celiac disease
  • anorexia
  • Parkinson disease
  • multiple sclerosis
  • scleroderma
  • amyloidosis
  • systemic lupus erythematosus
  • hypothyroidism
  • chronic renal insufficiency
  • acute viral infection
  • paraneoplastic syndrome (tumor-associated)
  • use of specific drugs
  • alcohol
  • chronic mesenteric ischemia
  • median arcuate ligament syndrome
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CBC
  • serum glucose
  • serum creatinine
  • serum potassium
  • liver function tests
  • serum total protein
  • serum albumin
  • serum amylase and lipase
  • thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • HbA1c
  • pregnancy test
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • gastric emptying scintigraphy
  • upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • abdominal x-ray
  • contrast radiography
  • wireless motility capsule (WMC)
  • gastric emptying breath test (GEBT)
More investigations to consider

Emerging tests

  • electrogastrography

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

acute symptoms

ONGOING

refractory to medical therapy

Contributors

Authors

Savio C. Reddymasu, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine

Creighton University School of Medicine

Phoenix Regional Campus

St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center

Phoenix

AZ

Disclosures

SCR is an author of a reference cited in this topic. SCR declares that he has no competing interests.

Mojtaba M. Olyaee, MD

Professor of Medicine

Chief

Division of Gastroenterology

University of Kansas Medical Center

Kansas City

KS

Disclosures

MMO declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

John Kepros, MD

Director

Trauma Services

Assistant Professor

Michigan State University

Lansing

MI

Disclosures

JK declares that he has no competing interests.

Eamonn M.M. Quigley, MD, FRCP, FACP, FACG, FRCPI

Department of Medicine

Clinical Sciences Building

Cork University Hospital

Cork

Ireland

Disclosures

EMMQ declares that he has no competing interests.

  • Differentials

    • Acute pancreatitis
    • Cyclic vomiting syndrome
    • Functional dyspepsia
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  • Guidelines

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    • Informed consent for GI endoscopic procedures
    More Guidelines
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