Last reviewed: 4 Jul 2021
Last updated: 16 Jun 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • history of breast-feeding
  • history of inadequate sunlight exposure
  • history of calcium deficiency
  • history of phosphate deficiency

Other diagnostic factors

  • bone pain
  • growth retardation
  • delayed achievement of motor milestones
  • bony deformities
  • muscle weakness
  • carpopedal spasm
  • tetany
  • numbness or paresthesias
  • hypocalcemic seizures

Risk factors

  • age 6 to 23 months
  • inadequate sunlight exposure
  • breast-feeding
  • darker skin complexion
  • calcium deficiency
  • phosphate deficiency
  • family history of rickets
  • antacids, loop diuretics, corticosteroids, or anticonvulsants

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • radiograph of a long bone
  • serum calcium
  • serum inorganic phosphorus
  • serum parathyroid hormone level
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (calcidiol)
  • alkaline phosphatase and liver function tests
  • serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen
  • urinary calcium and phosphorus

Investigations to consider

  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels (calcitriol)

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Carlos Palacio, MD, MPH, FACP
Carlos Palacio

Professor of Medicine

Associate Program Director

Internal Medicine Residency

Department of Medicine

University of Florida College of Medicine

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

CP declares that he has no competing interests.

Firas Warda, MD

Endocrinology Fellow

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism

Department of Medicine

University of Florida College of Medicine

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

FW declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Professor Carols Palacio and Dr Firas Warda would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Robert Olney, a previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

RO declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Phil Fischer, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Mayo Clinic

Rochester

MN

Disclosures

PF declares that he has no competing interests.

Zulf Mughal, MD

Consultant in Paediatric Bone Disorders

Department of Paediatric Endocrinology

Royal Manchester Children's Hospital

UK

Disclosures

No disclosures

Arshag Mooradian, MD

Professor of Medicine

University of Florida College of Medicine

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

AM declares that he has no competing interests.

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