Last reviewed: June 2020
Last updated: March  2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • leg fatigue or aching with prolonged standing
  • leg cramps
  • restless legs
  • hemosiderin deposition
  • corona phlebectatica
  • itching
  • lipodermatosclerosis
  • ankle swelling
  • ulceration
  • bleeding from varices

Risk factors

  • increasing age
  • family history
  • female sex
  • increasing numbers of births
  • deep vein thrombosis
  • occupation with prolonged standing
  • obesity

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Professor of Vascular Surgery and Honorary Consultant Vascular Surgeon

Department of Surgery and Cancer

Imperial College London

Imperial Vascular Unit

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust 

London

UK 

Disclosures

AHD declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Lecturer and Post CCT Fellow in Vascular Surgery 

Department of Surgery and Cancer

Imperial College London

Imperial Vascular Unit

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust 

London

UK 

Disclosures

TRAL declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor Alun Davies and Mr Tristan Lane would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Luis R. Leon Jr, Dr Maureen K. Sheehan, and Dr Boulos Toursarkissian, previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Medical Director/Consultant Vascular Surgeon

Bedford Hospital

Bedford

UK

Disclosures

PT declares that he has no competing interests.

Director

Morrison Vein Institute

Scottsdale

AZ

Disclosures

NM declares that he has no competing interests.

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