Last reviewed: 27 Sep 2021
Last updated: 19 Dec 2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • history of exposure
  • necrotic skin lesions (cutaneous)
  • painless lesions (cutaneous)
  • edema (cutaneous)
  • influenza-like illness (inhalation)
  • respiratory symptoms (inhalation)
  • oropharyngeal ulceration (ingestion)

Other diagnostic factors

  • lymphadenopathy
  • hypotension
  • gastrointestinal symptoms (ingestion)

Risk factors

  • environmental exposure
  • occupational exposure
  • biologic terrorism
  • undercooked meat ingestion
  • heroin use

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • culture and Gram stain
  • real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
  • serology
  • anthrax lethal factor (LF) toxin mass spectrometry
  • biopsy
  • CBC
  • chest x-ray

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Daniel Boyle, MD

Instructor

Division of Infectious Diseases

Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

DB declares that he has no competing interests.

Brian Wolf, MD

Infectious Diseases Fellow

Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

BW declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Daniel Boyle and Dr Brian Wolf would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Teresa Zembower and Dr Pavani Reddy, previous contributors to this topic. TZ and PR declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Timothy Benton, MD

Regional Chairman

Residency Program Director

Associate Professor

Family and Community Medicine

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at the Permian Basin

Odessa

TX

Disclosures

TB declares that he has no competing interests.

Raffaele D’Amelio, MD

Professor of Internal Medicine

Director: Unit Clinical Immunology and Allergy

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine

Sapienza University of Rome, S. Andrea University Hospital

Rome

Italy

Disclosures

RD declares that he has no competing interests.

Ali Hassoun, MD, FACP, FIDSA, AAHIVS

Infectious Disease Specialist

Alabama Infectious Diseases Center

Huntsville

AL

Disclosures

AH declares that he has no competing interests.

Tim Brooks, MA, LMSSA, MB BChir, MSc, FRCPath, FRSPH

Head of Novel & Dangerous Pathogens

Novel and Dangerous Pathogens

HPA Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response

Salisbury

UK

Disclosures

TB declares that he has no competing interests.

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