Evaluation of hypokalemia

Last reviewed: 7 Jun 2022
Last updated: 06 Jul 2022

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Vomiting
  • Severe diarrhea
  • Laxative and bowel cleansing agent use
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Drug-induced
  • Alcoholism
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state
  • Primary aldosteronism
  • Exercising in a hot climate
  • Stress response in critical illness
Full details

Uncommon

  • Villous adenoma
  • VIPoma
  • Ileal loop/conduit with ureteric implants
  • Dialysis or plasmapheresis
  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Central diabetes insipidus (DI)
  • Hypomagnesemia
  • Hypokalemic periodic paralysis
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency
  • Renal tubular acidosis (RTA)
  • Bartter syndrome
  • Gitelman syndrome
  • Liddle syndrome
  • Renal disease associated with Sjögren syndrome
  • Renal disease associated with lupus nephropathy
  • Burns
  • Eczema involving a large surface area
  • Psoriasis involving a large surface area
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF)
  • Primary (often psychogenic) polydipsia
  • Hypothermia
Full details

Contributors

Authors

Udaya Kabadi, MD

Professor of Medicine

University of Iowa

Des Moines Internal Medicine Residency Training Program

Staff Endocrinologist

Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Des Moines

IA

Disclosures

UK is an author of references cited in this topic.

Acknowledgements

Dr Udaya Kabadi would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Sumit Sharma and Dr Preeti Agrawal, previous contributors to this topic. SS and PA declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Bryan M Tucker, DO, MS

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Section of Nephrology

Baylor College of Medicine

Houston

TX

Disclosures

BMT declares that he has no competing interests.

Manish Suneja, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Internal Medicine

Division of Nephrology

University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics

Iowa City

IA

Disclosures

MS declares that he has no competing interests.

Suresh C. Hathiwala, MD

Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine

Chicago Medical School

Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science

Associate Program Director

Department of Medicine

Mount Sinai Hospital

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

SCH declares that he has no competing interests.

Dimitrios Kirmizis, MD, MSc, PhD

Nephrologist

Aristotle University

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

DK declares that he has no competing interests.

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