Last reviewed: 25 Aug 2021
Last updated: 14 Sep 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • insidious onset
  • well-localized tenderness

Other diagnostic factors

  • pain during activity
  • tendon thickening
  • tendon nodularity
  • crepitus

Risk factors

  • athletic training
  • unsuitable equipment
  • hard and high-friction playing surface
  • increasing age
  • fluoroquinolone treatment

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Freddie H. Fu, MD, DSc, DPs
Freddie H. Fu

David Silver Professor

Chairman

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Head Team Physician

University of Pittsburgh Athletic Department

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

FHF declares that he has no competing interests.

James H-C. Wang, PhD
James H-C. Wang

Professor and Director

MechanoBiology Laboratory

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

JHW declares that he has no competing interests.

Benjamin B. Rothrauff, MD, PhD

Research Fellow

UPMC Center for Sports Medicine

University of Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

BBR declares that he has no competing interests.

Kevin J. Byrne, MD

Research Fellow

UPMC Center for Sports Medicine

University of Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

KJB declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Freddie H. Fu, Dr James H-C. Wang, Dr Benjamin B. Rothrauff, and Dr. Kevin J. Byrne would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Kivanc Atesok, Dr Chad Griffith, Dr Garth N. Walker, Dr Chealon Miller, Dr Paulo H. Araujo, Dr Margaret S. Lo, and Dr Márcio Albers, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

KA, CG, GNW, CM, PHA, MSL, and MA declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Per Renström, MD

Professor Emeritus

Karolinska Institute

Stockholm

Sweden

Disclosures

PR declares that he has no competing interests.

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