Last reviewed: 25 Jun 2021
Last updated: 07 Jul 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Stomach cancer
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Hepatoma
  • Small cell lung cancer
  • Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Chronic leukemia
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Oropharyngeal cancer
  • Laryngeal cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Celiac disease
  • Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
  • Crohn disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Mesenteric ischemia
  • Depression
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Substance abuse
  • Parkinson disease
  • Dementia
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Tuberculosis (pulmonary)
  • Adverse drug effects

Uncommon

  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Acute leukemia
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
  • VIPoma
  • Carcinoid syndrome
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Chronic hepatitis
  • Esophageal webs, rings, and diverticula
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)
  • Gastroparesis
  • Post-surgical complications
  • Stomatitis
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Prion disease
  • Cardiac cachexia syndrome
  • Post-stroke complications
  • Pulmonary cachexia syndrome
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Microscopic polyangiitis
  • Renal cachexia syndrome
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Hypopituitarism
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
  • Polyarteritis nodosa
  • Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Mixed connective tissue disease (overlap syndromes)
  • Adult-onset Still disease
  • HIV infection
  • Tuberculosis (extrapulmonary)
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI)
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Amebiasis
  • Giardiasis
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cystoisosporiasis
  • Cyclosporiasis
  • Strongyloidiasis
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Whipple disease
  • Bartonella infection
  • Inadequate nutrition
  • Elder abuse/neglect
  • Child abuse/neglect

Contributors

Authors

Christopher J. Wong, MD

Associate Professor

Division of General Internal Medicine

Department of Medicine

University of Washington

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

CJW is an author of a reference cited in this topic. He also receives royalties from Springer for textbooks on perioperative medicine and primary care of solid organ transplant recipients.

Peer reviewers

Alan Shand, MD, FRCP (ed)

Clinical Director

Gastro-intestinal Unit

Western General Hospital

Edinburgh

UK

Disclosures

AS declares that he has no competing interests.

Sherman M. Chamberlain, MD, FACP, AGAF, FACG

Professor of Medicine

Medical Director, Endoscopy

Section of Gastroenterology/Hepatology

Georgia Regents University-Medical College of Georgia

Augusta

GA

Disclosures

SMC declares that he has no competing interests.

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