Retinal consequence of chronic progressive diabetic microvascular leakage and occlusion.
Etiologic factors include hyperglycemia, hypertension, and possibly genetic factors.
Sight-threatening signs include macular edema, retinal or optic disc new vessels, and vitreous hemorrhage.
Main goals of therapy are to improve glycemic, lipid, and hypertensive control and ensure that sight-threatening disease is arrested before visual loss occurs.
Diabetic retinopathy is the retinal consequence of chronic progressive diabetic microvascular leakage and occlusion. It eventually occurs to some degree in all patients with diabetes mellitus. There are two types: nonproliferative and proliferative. Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is the early stage of the disease and is less severe. Blood vessels in the eye may leak fluid into the retina, which leads to blurred vision. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the more advanced form of the disease. New blood vessels start to grow in the eye (neovascularization), which are fragile and can hemorrhage. This may cause vision loss and scarring of the retina.
Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon
Moorfields Eye Hospital
JD declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Jonathan Dowler would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Robin Hamilton, a previous contributor to this monograph. RH declares that he has no competing interests.
Diabetes and Bone Disease
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
ZB declares that he has no competing interests.
Head of Department of Ophthalmology
University of Melbourne
TYW declares that he has no competing interests.
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
Within the last 5 years, SS has received funding for organizing continuing medical education conferences from Alcon, Genentech, and Novartis; has owned shares in Pfizer; has received research funding from Genentech; and is co-holder of a patent pending on "Molecular targets for modulating intraocular pressure and differentiation of steroid responders versus nonresponders."
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