Genital tract chlamydia infections are the most frequently reported notifiable disease in the US.
Many infected individuals are asymptomatic.
In women, there may be cervical inflammation or yellow, cloudy discharge from the cervical os.
In men, there may be a discharge from the penis.
Nonculture techniques such as the nucleic acid amplification test are available. Tests in men are performed on urine or urethral samples. Tests in women are performed on urine, cervical, or self-collected vaginal samples.
Untreated or inadequately treated patients risk possible ascending infection and further complications. Patients also risk spreading the infection to sexual partners.
Urogenital chlamydia infection is a common STD worldwide. The causative organism is Chlamydia trachomatis . Infection is usually asymptomatic in both men and women. In women, the infection tends to occur in the endocervical canal and some women who have uncomplicated cervical infection already have subclinical upper reproductive tract infections upon diagnosis. Symptoms may include intramenstrual or postcoital bleeding; an odorless, mucoid vaginal discharge; pelvic pain; or dysuria. In men, infection can occur in the urethra, causing a penile discharge. Untreated or inadequately treated infections can lead to more serious problems such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and infertility in women, and epididymitis and prostatitis in men.
Professor of Medicine
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
AR declares that she has no competing interests.
Dr Anne Rompalo would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Christopher K. Fairley, a previous contributor to this monograph. CKF declares that he has no competing interests.
American Family Physician
Clinical Assistant Professor
GUSOM Medical Officer
US Preventive Services Task Force
KL declares that he has no competing interests.
Department of Infectious Diseases
Aarhus University Hospital
LJO has been funded by Pfizer to write a leaflet on Chlamydia infections.
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