Incidental adrenal masses are typically found during radiologic imaging of kidneys and adrenals. They are classified as hormonally active or nonfunctioning, and as malignant or benign.
The prevalence of clinically inapparent adrenal masses increases with age, being <1% for patients younger than 30 years of age and increasing to 7% in patients 70 years of age and older.
Forty-one percent of incidental adrenal masses are adenomas, 19% metastases, 10% adrenocortical carcinomas, 9% myelolipomas, up to 8% pheochromocytomas, and the remainder mostly benign tumors (cysts, adrenolipomas, hematomas, leiomyomas, lymphangiomas).
The prevalence of adrenal adenoma is 6% based on autopsy studies, and 4% based on abdominal computed tomography.
Most hormonally active adrenal tumors causing Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, or primary hyperaldosteronism are benign, but uncommonly they may be malignant.
Adrenocortical carcinoma, while rare, is frequently hormonally active.
- Nonsecretory adrenal adenomas
- Cushing syndrome
- Primary hyperaldosteronism
- Adrenal cysts
- Adrenal myelolipomas
- Adrenal hemangiomas
- Adrenal ganglioneuroma
- Granulomatous infiltrative adrenal lesions
- Adrenocortical carcinoma
- Adrenal metastases
- Adrenal malignant melanoma
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