Last reviewed: 27 Jun 2021
Last updated: 10 Mar 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Alcoholic liver disease
  • Choledocholithiasis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Drug-induced liver injury
  • Ascending cholangitis
  • Pancreatic carcinoma
  • Liver metastases
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Decompensated cirrhosis
  • Acute liver failure
  • Acute-on-chronic liver failure

Uncommon

  • Gilbert syndrome
  • Hepatitis E
  • Hepatitis D
  • Leptospirosis
  • Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) cholangiopathy
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  • Postoperative stricture
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • Primary biliary cholangitis
  • Wilson disease
  • Hereditary hemochromatosis
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
  • Parasitic infections
  • AIDS cholangiopathy
  • Heart failure

Contributors

Authors

Janisha Patel, BSc, PhD, MBChB

Consultant Hepatologist

University Hospital Southampton

Southampton

UK

Disclosures

JP declares that she has no competing interests.

Alex Smith, MBChB MRCP

Hepatology Specialist Registrar

University Hospital Southampton

Southampton

UK

Disclosures

AS declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Janisha Patel and Dr Alex Smith would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rene Ramnarace, Dr Harry R. Dalton, Dr Peter Draganov, and Dr Grant F. Hutchins, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

RR, HRD, PD, and GFH declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Jeffrey S. Upperman, MD, FACS, FAAP

Associate Professor of Surgery

Division of General Pediatric Surgery; Director of the Trauma Program

Children's Hospital

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

JSU declares that he has no competing interests.

Grant Sanders, MBBS

Consultant

Laparoscopic Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeon

Derriford Hospital

Plymouth

UK

Disclosures

GS declares that he has no competing interests.

Jawad Ahmad, MD, FRCP, FAASLD

Professor of Medicine

Division of Liver Diseases

Mount Sinai Hospital

New York

NY

Disclosures

JA declares that he has no competing interests.

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