Syphilis infection

Last reviewed: 20 Apr 2022
Last updated: 04 Jan 2022

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • anogenital ulcer
  • lymphadenopathy
  • diffuse rash
  • constitutional symptoms
  • fatigue
  • rhinitis (congenital syphilis)
  • hepatosplenomegaly (congenital syphilis)
  • patchy alopecia
  • condylomata lata
  • memory impairment, altered mood, confusion, or dementia
  • visual changes
  • Argyll-Robertson pupils
  • loss of sense of vibration, proprioception, and position sense
  • ataxia
  • loss of anal and bladder sphincter control
  • positive Romberg sign
  • diastolic murmur
  • rubbery lesions/nodules with a necrotic center
  • miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death (congenital syphilis)
  • premature labor and intrauterine growth retardation (congenital syphilis)
  • neonatal skin rash (congenital syphilis)
  • tibial bowing (congenital syphilis)
  • craniofacial malformation (congenital syphilis)
  • tooth abnormalities (congenital syphilis)
  • necrotizing funisitis (congenital syphilis)
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • mouth ulcer
  • asymptomatic with positive serology (latent syphilis)
  • tremor
  • headache
  • meningismus
  • eye pain
  • hearing loss
  • seizures
  • peripheral edema
  • jaundice
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • areflexia
  • angina
  • dyspnea
  • organomegaly
  • skin or visceral organ perforation or collapse of structure
  • neonatal neurologic abnormalities (congenital syphilis)
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • sexual contact with an infected person
  • men who have sex with men (MSM)
  • illicit drug use
  • commercial sex workers
  • multiple sexual partners
  • people with HIV or other STIs
  • syphilis during pregnancy (risk for congenital syphilis)
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • dark-field microscopy of swab from lesion
  • serum treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
  • serum Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)
  • serum Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA)
  • serum fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test
  • immunocapture assay
  • line immunoassay (LIA) serologic test
  • serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test
  • serum Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • lumbar puncture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis
  • chest x-ray
  • echocardiogram
  • computed tomography brain
  • magnetic resonance imaging brain
  • HIV test
  • fetal ultrasound scan
  • complete blood count
  • long-bone x-rays
  • liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) and bilirubin
  • auditory brainstem response
  • audiometry
  • fetal skeletal survey
More investigations to consider

Emerging tests

  • Treponema pallidum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (sample taken directly from ulcerative lesions)
  • point of care (POC) testing with either treponemal or combination treponemal/nontreponemal antibody

Treatment algorithm

INITIAL

adults with suspected early infection or sexual contacts of patients with confirmed infection

ACUTE

adults without neurosyphilis

adults with neurosyphilis

congenital syphilis

Contributors

Authors

Juan C. Salazar, MD, MPH, FAAP

Professor and Chair

Department of Pediatrics

University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Hartford

CT

Disclosures

JCS is the author of references cited in this topic.

Jairo M. Montezuma-Rusca, MD, MPH

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

Department of Medicine

University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Farmington

CT

Disclosures

JMM-R declares that he has no competing interests.

Adriana R. Cruz, MD

Research Associate

CIDEIM

Cali

Colombia

Disclosures

ARC declares that she has no conflicting interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Juan C. Salazar, Dr Jairo M. Montezuma-Rusca, and Dr Adriana R. Cruz would like to gratefully acknowledge Nicholas Bennett, Patrick French and Nooshin Barmania, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

PF is an author of a reference cited in this topic. NB and NB declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Robert A. Larsen, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine

University of Southern California

Keck School of Medicine

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

RAL declares that he has no competing interests.

William Rodriguez, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Director of Research

Global Health Delivery Project

Harvard School of Public Health

Boston

MA

Disclosures

WR declares that he has no competing interests.

Jennifer Handforth, MB ChB, MRCPCH, DTM&H

Consultant Paediatrician

Croydon University Hospital

Croydon

UK

Disclosures

JH declares that she has no competing interests.

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