Last reviewed: 1 Jul 2021
Last updated: 29 Jul 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Current diuretic therapy
  • Gastric secretion losses
  • Postdiuretic therapy
  • Posthypercapnia
  • Bicarbonate administration
  • Milk-alkali syndrome

Uncommon

  • Primary hyperaldosteronism
  • Secondary hyperaldosteronism
  • Renal artery stenosis
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Licorice ingestion
  • Tobacco chewing
  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
  • Liddle syndrome
  • Bartter syndrome
  • Gitelman syndrome
  • Profound potassium depletion
  • Hypercalcemia of nonhyperparathyroid etiology
  • Poststarvation refeeding syndrome
  • Transfusion of blood products (sodium citrate)
  • Villous adenoma
  • Chloride diarrhea
  • Cystic fibrosis

Contributors

Authors

Dinkar Kaw, MD, FACP, FASN
Dinkar Kaw

Professor of Medicine

Division of Nephrology

Department of Medicine

University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences

Toledo

OH

Disclosures

DK declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Dinkar Kaw would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Joseph I. Shapiro, a previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

JIS declared that he had no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Chris Abbiss, BSc

School of Exercise

Biomedical and Health Science

Edith Cowan University

Western Australia

Disclosures

CA declares that he has no competing interests.

Mark Cowan, MD, FCCP

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

The University of Maryland

Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

MICU Director

Baltimore VA Medical Center

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

MC declares that he has no competing interests.

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