Evaluation of upper gastrointestinal bleed

Last reviewed: 7 Sep 2022
Last updated: 22 Apr 2022

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
  • Esophageal varices
  • Esophagitis
  • Mallory-Weiss tear
Full details

Uncommon

  • Boerhaave syndrome (spontaneous esophageal perforation)
  • Gastric varices
  • Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)
  • Dieulafoy lesions
  • Upper GI tumors
  • Aortoenteric fistulae (AEF)
  • Coagulopathy
Full details

Contributors

Authors

Douglas G. Adler, MD, FACG, AGAF, FASGE

Professor of Medicine

Director, Gastrointestinal Fellowship Program

Director of Therapeutic Endoscopy

Division of Gastroenterology

Department of Internal Medicine

Huntsman Cancer Institute

University of Utah

Salt Lake City

UT

Disclosures

DGA has consulted for Boston Scientific and Merit Medical, which make endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) products. He is also an author of references cited in this topic.

Acknowledgements

Dr Douglas G. Adler would like to gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr Patrick D. Martin.

Disclosures

PDM declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Ned Snyder, MD, FACP

Professor of Medicine

Chief of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

University of Texas Medical Branch

Galveston

TX

Disclosures

NS declares that he has no competing interests.

David J. Hackam, MD, PhD

Associate Professor of Pediatric Surgery

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

DJH declares that he has no competing interests.

Giuseppe Malizia, MD

Consultant Gastroenterologist

Divisione di Gastroenterologia

Ospedale V. Cervello

Palermo

Italy

Disclosures

GM declares that he has no competing interests.

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