Last reviewed:September 2019
Last updated:December  2017



History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • black or Hispanic ancestry
  • new pigmented velvety skin lesions in axillary or flexural areas
  • lesions distributed on the posterior neck, axillae, vulva, umbilicus, inner thighs, and groin
  • weight gain
  • generalized distribution
  • sudden appearance of multiple seborrheic keratoses

Other diagnostic factors

  • age >40 years
  • child/young adult
  • female gender
  • acrochordons (skin tags)
  • acral distribution
  • pruritus
  • mucosal or palmoplantar lesions
  • weight loss

Risk factors

  • obesity
  • insulin resistance
  • positive FHx of AN or genetic syndrome
  • FHx of diabetes mellitus
  • malignancy
  • medication

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • fasting blood glucose
  • fasting blood insulin
  • abdominal CT
  • skin biopsy
Full details

Treatment algorithm


Consultant Dermatopathologist

Southern California Permanent Medical Group

Sunset Medical Center

Los Angeles



DSC declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr David Cassarino would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Laura Westerling for her contribution to this monograph. LNW declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Dermatology

Department of Dermatology

Yale University

New Haven



CK declares that she has no competing interests.

Consultant Dermatologist

Department of Dermatology

Queen's Medical Centre

Nottingham University Hospitals




JE declares that he has no competing interests.

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