Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined from 19.4 to 14.6 in 1000 women aged 15-44 years, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting its lowest number of abortions in 2014. Although the overall abortion rate has declined, this is not seen across all population groups, with higher rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion in disadvantaged groups. This disparity suggests there is limited access to contraception for some women and adolescents, and points to the importance of addressing birth control with all patients at risk for unintended pregnancy.
For updates on diagnosis and management of coexisting conditions during the pandemic, see our topic "Management of coexisting conditions in the context of COVID-19".
- Initial counseling
- Barrier methods
- Barrier methods: the diaphragm and cervical cap
- Barrier methods: the female condom
- Barrier methods: the male condom
- Barrier methods: spermicide
- Behavioral methods
- Behavioral methods: lactational amenorrhea
- Behavioral methods: periodic abstinence
- Behavioral methods: withdrawal
- Hormonal contraception
- Combined hormonal contraceptives (estrogen/progestogen)
- Contraindications to estrogen-containing contraceptives
- Combined hormonal contraceptives: estrogen/progestogen pills
- Combined hormonal contraceptives: estrogen/progestogen patch
- Combined hormonal contraceptives: estrogen/progestogen vaginal ring
- Progestogen-only contraceptives
- Progestogen-only contraceptives: progestogen-only pill
- Progestogen-only contraceptives: progestogen implant
- Progestogen-only contraceptives: progestogen injection
- Non-hormonal contraception
- Intrauterine devices (IUDs)
- Intrauterine devices: copper IUD
- Intrauterine devices: progestogen IUD
- Sterilization: female sterilization
- Sterilization: male sterilization
- Non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal contraceptives
- Emergency contraception
- Emergency contraception: progestogen-only emergency contraception
- Emergency contraception: ulipristal
- Emergency contraception: copper IUD
- Emergency contraception: estrogen/progestogen emergency contraception
Anne Burke, MD, MPH
Johns Hopkins University
AB has received research support from Bayer Pharmaceuticals.
Dr Anne Burke would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Ruth Lesnewski, a previous contributor to this topic.
RL declares that she has no competing interests.
Larry Leeman, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Family and Community Medicine
Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Family Medicine Department
University of New Mexico
LL declares that he has no competing interests.
Suzan Goodman, MD, MPH
Assistant Clinical Professor
UCSF and UCD
SG has served as an Implanon training specialist for Organon Inc.
Lesley Bacon, FFSRH, MRCGP
Consultant in Sexual and Reproductive Health
Lewisham Primary Care Trust
Waldron Health Centre
LB was a member of the group that produced the 2006 Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health guidance on the management of women with vaginal discharge presenting in non-GU setting.
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