Autosomal-dominant genetic disorder with the defining features of café au lait spots, multiple neurofibromas, and iris Lisch nodules.
Diagnosis is made clinically; molecular testing is required only for problem cases and genetic counseling.
The disorder is progressive, though variable; it will worsen.
Multiple organ systems are involved: skin, CNS, peripheral nerves, eyes, bones, GI tract, and vascular and endocrine systems.
Presentation in a young child may be subtle.
Regular follow-up, especially of complex cases, is recommended to identify early lesions, especially malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs).
Neurofibromatosis, type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder with the defining features of café au lait spots, multiple neurofibromas, and iris Lisch nodules. Almost always, additional manifestations are present, including those involving the skin, CNS, peripheral nerves, bones, GI tract, vasculature, and endocrine system. The most common additional manifestations are learning disabilities; optic pathway gliomas; diffuse, occasionally massive plexiform neurofibromas; dystrophic scoliosis; sphenoid wing dysplasia; renovascular HTN; and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). 
Professor of Medical Genetics and Cancer Epidemiology
School of Medicine
University of Manchester
DGE is an author of several studies referenced in this monograph. He has also received a one-off consultancy fee from AstraZeneca.
Professor D. Gareth Evans would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Vincent M. Riccardi, a previous contributor to this monograph. VMR is an author of several studies referenced in this monograph.
Department of Genetics
University of Alabama at Birmingham
BRK declares that he has no competing interests.
Consultant in Clinical Genetics
Department of Medical Genetics
Belfast HSC Trust
PM declares that he has no competing interests.
Clinical Senior Lecturer and Honorary Consultant in Medical Genetics
Institute of Medical Genetics
University of Glasgow
EST declares that he has no competing interests.
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