Hip fractures occur predominantly in older people. The risk increases significantly with age.
Associated most commonly with low-energy injury (e.g., fall from standing height) and osteoporosis or osteopenia.
Treatment is most commonly surgical. The choice of implant depends on the fracture pattern and the surgeon's preference.
A hip fracture is generally considered to be any fracture of the femur distal to the femoral head and proximal to a level a few centimeters below the lesser trochanter.
History and exam
Herman Johal, MD, MPH, FRCSC
Orthopaedic Trauma Surgeon
Department of Surgery
HJ declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Herman Johal would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Bradley A. Petrisor and Dr Mohit Bhandari, the previous contributors to this topic.
BAP and MB declare that they have no competing interests.
Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
University of Minnesota
MFS is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.
Rudolf Poolman, MD, PhD
Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon
Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis
Teaching Hospital with The University of Amsterdam
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
RP has been reimbursed by LINK for organizing education and research consultancy.
David Hackam, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Surgery
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
DH declares that he has no competing interests.
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