Plain radiographs still provide the best screening for acute and chronic osteomyelitis.
MRI, bone scintigraphy, and CT may be used to determine diagnosis and treatment decisions.
The decision to use oral or parenteral antibiotics should be based on microorganism sensitivity results, patient compliance, infectious disease consultation, and the surgeon's experience.
A suppressive antibiotic regimen should be culture-directed.
Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen most commonly isolated in cultures.
Operative treatment includes debridement, obliteration of dead space, restoration of blood supply, adequate soft tissue coverage, stabilization, and reconstruction.
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone that presents a variety of challenges to the physician. The severity of the disease is staged depending on the infection's etiology, pathogenesis, extent of bone involvement, and duration, and host factors particular to the individual patient. Osteomyelitis may be either hematogenous or caused by a contiguous spread of infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism isolated.
Spectrum Health Medical Group
JHC declares that he has no competing interests.
Clinical Professor of Medicine and Orthopedics
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
NR declares that she has no competing interests.
Research Assistant Professor
Department of Orthopedics
The Ohio State University
MMM declares that he has no competing interests.
Bayview Medical Center
KJ declares that she has no competing interests.
Department of Infectious Diseases
University of Naples
SE has been reimbursed for attending several conferences and received fees for speaking and running educational programs by Pfizer, Novartis, Wyeth Lederle, Sanofi Aventis, and GSK.
Professor of Medicine
Infectious Diseases Division
University of Connecticut Health Center
EP declares that he has no competing interests.
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