Mitral regurgitation (MR) may present with dyspnea, usually on exertion, palpitations, and/or decreased exercise tolerance.
Typically, presents as a holosystolic blowing murmur at the apex, radiating to the axilla.
Transthoracic echo is the diagnostic test of choice in identifying presence, severity, and mechanism of MR.
Color Doppler flow and continuous-wave Doppler studies can assess severity of regurgitation, left ventricular dimensions, size and function of the right ventricle, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure.
Management options include surgical repair or replacement and transcatheter mitral valve repair; the risks and benefits of interventional options should be individually evaluated for each patient.
The most common complications of surgical treatment are failure of repair, prosthetic valve stenosis, endocarditis, and mitral valve patient-prosthesis mismatch.
The mitral valve apparatus consists of anterior and posterior leaflets, chordae tendineae, anterolateral and posteromedial papillary muscles, and mitral annulus. Any aberrations of the mitral valve apparatus, due to mechanical, traumatic, infectious, degenerative, congenital, or metabolic causes, may lead to mitral regurgitation (MR).
Mild to moderate disease can be asymptomatic for many years; however, with progression of the disease, eccentric cardiac hypertrophy occurs, which leads to elongation of the myocardial fibers and increased left ventricular end-diastolic volume. Eventually, prolonged volume overload leads to left ventricular dysfunction and increased left ventricular end-systolic diameter.
History and exam
Key diagnostic factors
- dyspnea on exertion
- decreased exercise tolerance
- lower extremity edema
- holosystolic murmur
Other diagnostic factors
- displaced point of maximal impulse
- paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
- pulmonary closure is louder than aortic closure
- S3 heart sound
- diminished S1 heart sound
- mitral valve prolapse
- history of rheumatic heart disease
- infective endocarditis
- history of cardiac trauma
- history of myocardial infarction
- history of congenital heart disease
- history of ischemic heart disease
- left ventricular systolic dysfunction
- hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- anorectic/dopaminergic drugs
- elevated systolic blood pressure
1st investigations to order
- transthoracic echo
Investigations to consider
- flow convergence method or proximal isovelocity surface area
- color Doppler flow
- transesophageal echocardiogram
- cardiac catheterization
- cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)
acute severe MR
chronic severe primary MR: asymptomatic
chronic severe primary MR: symptomatic
chronic severe secondary MR
- Acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
- Infective endocarditis
- Mitral stenosis
- 2020 ACC/AHA guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease
- 2021 ESC/EACTS guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease
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