Last reviewed: June 2020
Last updated: May  2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • previous skin cancer
  • bleeding
  • crusting
  • evidence of sun damage to skin
  • tender or itchy nonhealing wound originally caused by trauma
  • erythematous papules or plaques
  • thin, flesh-colored or erythematous plaques
  • dome-shaped nodule
  • exophytic, fungating, verrucous nodules or plaques
  • ulcerated tumors
  • lymphadenopathy
  • bone pain
  • hepatomegaly
  • neurologic signs

Risk factors

  • Ultraviolet radiation exposure
  • immunosuppression
  • fair skin
  • human papillomavirus
  • hereditary skin conditions
  • older age
  • male sex
  • ionizing radiation
  • carcinogens
  • actinic keratosis
  • previous skin cancer
  • tobacco smoking
  • thiazide diuretics and cardiac drugs
  • tattoos

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • CT body scan
  • MRI scan
  • PET scan
  • CBC with differential
  • LFTs
  • chest x-ray
More investigations to consider

Emerging tests

  • noninvasive imaging technologies
More emerging tests

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Keyoumars Soltani

Professor

Department of Medicine

Director of Immunopathology

Laboratory Section of Dermatology

The University of Chicago

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

KS declares that he has no competing interests.

Adaobi Nwaneshiudu Obasi

Medical Director, Dermatologist, and Dermatopathologist

Cutis Wellness Dermatology & Dermatopathology, PLLC

Preceptor

University of the Incarnate Word

Department of Family Medicine 

Laredo

TX

Disclosures

AIN declares that she has no competing interests.

Prof K. Soltani and Dr A. I. Nwaneshiudu would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Carlos Paz and Dr Jessica M. Sheehan, the previous co-contributors to this topic. CP and JMS declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Clinical Professor of Dermatology

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

New York City

NY

Disclosures

NS declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Head

Associate Professor

Department of Dermatology

University of Illinois

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

IA declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor of Dermatology & Otolaryngology

Director of Mohs, Dermatologic & Laser Surgery

Director of Surgical Training

Department of Dermatology & Cutaneous Surgery

University of Miami

Miami

FL

Disclosures

KN declares that he has no competing interests.

Senior Lecturer and Honorary Consultant Dermatologist (Barts and the London NHS Trust)

Institute of Cellular and Molecular Science

London

UK

Disclosures

JMG declares that she has no competing interests.

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