Last reviewed: June 2020
Last updated: August  2019



History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • childhood or young adulthood
  • family history of alpha-thalassemia
  • symptoms of gallstones
  • growth retardation
  • history of prior iron supplementation
  • jaundice
  • mild dysmorphic facial features
  • extramedullary hematopoiesis

Risk factors

  • ethnicity from a geographic malarial area
  • positive family history

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • hemoglobin (Hb)
  • mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
  • mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
  • RBC count
  • peripheral smear
  • reticulocyte percentage
  • serum iron
  • serum ferritin
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • brilliant cresyl blue staining of red blood cells
  • hemoglobin electrophoresis
  • Hb fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  • gap-PCR
  • multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA)
  • direct sequencing
  • MRI (hepatic or cardiac)
  • superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID)
  • liver biopsy
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm



Thalassemia Program

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Professor of Pediatrics

Perelman School of Medicine

University of Pennsylvania




JLK has participated in research trials of iron chelation sponsored by Novartis and ApoPharma, and has consulted for Ionis Pharmaceuticals, bluebird bio, Agios, and Celgene.

Dr Janet L. Kwiatkowski would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Elizabeth A. Price and Dr Stanley L. Schrier, the previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine

Boston University School of Medicine




DHKC is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. He has received research grants or salary from the US National Institutes of Health greater than 6 figures USD.

Professor of Clinical Biochemical Molecular Genetics

Human and Clinical Genetics Department

Leiden University Medical Center


The Netherlands


PG declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Molecular and Biochemical Geneticist

Department of Clinical Genetics

Leiden University Medical Center


The Netherlands


CH declares that he has no competing interests.

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