Last reviewed:November 2019
Last updated:December  2019

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Dementia
  • Pain
  • Stroke and transient ischemic attack
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Acute systemic infection
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoxia
  • Hypercapnia
  • Acute urinary obstruction
  • Medication- or illicit drug-related
  • Alcoholic ketoacidosis
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Renal failure
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hyponatremia
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Meningitis/encephalitis
  • Brain tumor
  • Postictal state
  • Dehydration (volume depletion)
  • Constipation

Uncommon

  • Traumatic head injury
  • Adrenal crisis
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Myxedema coma
  • Brain abscess
  • Neurosyphilis
  • Wernicke encephalopathy

Contributors

Associate Professor

Yale University School of Medicine

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

MP declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Margaret Pisani would like to gratefully acknowledge David M. Dosa, a previous contributor to this monograph. DMD declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Professor and Associate Dean for Nursing Science Studies

College of Nursing

University of Illinois at Chicago

IL

Disclosures

MF declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Director

Acute Medicine

Associate Medical Director

Consultant Emergency Medicine

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust

Clinical Lead and Consultant

Accident Emergency Medicine

St Thomas' Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

AP declares that he has no competing interests.

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