Most typhoid infections occur in developing countries where sanitary conditions remain poor and water supplies are not treated.
Humans are the only known reservoir, and transmission occurs through food and water contaminated by acutely ill or chronic carriers of the organism.
Seen in developed countries mainly among travelers returning from endemic countries.
Highest incidence is in the Indian subcontinent and among travelers returning from that area.
Prolonged febrile illness with normal white blood cell count in returnees from an endemic area should increase suspicion.
Definitive diagnosis is by blood culture.
Presumptive antibiotic treatment in the traveler should depend upon the country of origin.
The current vaccines available offer only moderate protection against Salmonella typhi and almost no protection against S paratyphi, which has become a more dominant pathogen.
With the current vaccine efficacy and the increase in multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains, cases are expected to continue to increase and become ever more challenging to treat.
Typhoid infection is a fecal-oral transmissible disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, serotype S typhi. A similar clinical syndrome is caused by Salmonella enterica, serotype S paratyphi, and the terms "enteric fever" and typhoid infection are used to describe both diseases. Unless otherwise stated, the information presented here will relate to both diseases (S typhi and S paratyphi) described by the term typhoid infection.
History and exam
- overcrowded living in endemic areas
- poor sanitation/untreated water in endemic areas
- poor personal hygiene in endemic areas
- visiting endemic countries (e.g., Indian subcontinent, Mexico)
- travel to areas with poor sanitation within endemic countries
- ignoring hygiene rules while traveling in endemic countries
- travel to the Indian subcontinent
- longer duration of stay in endemic country
Eli Schwartz, MD, DTMH
Center for Geographical Medicine and Tropical Diseases
Chaim Sheba Medical Center
Tel HaShomer Hospital
Clinical Professor of Medicine
Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel Aviv University
ES is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.
Bradley A. Connor, MD
Clinical Associate Professor
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
New York Center for Travel and Tropical Medicine
New York City
BAC declares that he has no competing interests.
Chris Parry, MD
Senior Lecturer (Honorary Consultant)
Division of Medical Microbiology and Genitourinary Medicine
School of Infection and Host Defence
University of Liverpool
CP declares that he has no competing interests.
Paul M. Southern, MD, MSc, DTM&H
Department of Pathology
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
PMS declares that he has no competing interests.
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