Last reviewed: 19 Sep 2021
Last updated: 28 Jan 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • waist circumference
  • comorbid conditions

Risk factors

  • hypothyroidism
  • hypercortisolism
  • age ≥40 years
  • peri- and postmenopause
  • prior pregnancy
  • married
  • sleep deprivation
  • history of tobacco smoking
  • less formal education
  • poor in utero nutrition
  • low socioeconomic status
  • sedentary lifestyle
  • television watching and video games >2 to 3 hours daily
  • diet high in sugar, cholesterol, fat, and fast food
  • heavy alcohol intake (>2 drinks per day)
  • binge-eating disorder
  • night eating syndrome
  • leptin deficiency
  • corticosteroid therapy
  • antidepressant therapy
  • antipsychotic therapy
  • beta-blocker therapy
  • adjuvant breast cancer therapy
  • psychiatric diagnosis

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • CBC
  • serum aminotransferases
  • thyroid function tests
  • ECG
  • abdominal ultrasound scan
  • polysomnography (sleep study)

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Constantine T. Frantzides, MD, PhD, FACS
Constantine T. Frantzides

Director, Chicago Institute of Minimally Invasive Surgery (CIMIS)

Director, Laparoscopic and Bariatric Fellowship Program

Clinical Professor of Surgery, University of Illinois

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

CTF declares that he has no competing interests.

Minh B. Luu, MD, FACS
Minh B. Luu

Site Director, General Surgery Residency Program

Elmhurst Memorial Healthcare

Elmhurst

IL

Adjunct Associate Professor of Surgery

Department of General Surgery

Rush University Medical Center

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

MBL declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Constantine T. Frantzides and Dr Minh B. Luu would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Scott N. Welle and Dr Mark A. Carlson, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

SNW declares that he has no competing interests. MAC declares that he is the author of the Daily Diet Score, a freely available online weight loss method.

Peer reviewers

Carel Le Roux, MRCP, PhD, FRCPath

Consultant in Metabolic Medicine

Imperial College London

Charing Cross Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

CLR declares that he has no competing interests.

Arya M. Sharma, MD, PhD, FRCPC

Professor of Medicine

Chair for Obesity Research & Management

University of Alberta

Royal Alexandra Hospital

Edmonton

Canada

Disclosures

AMS declares that he has no competing interests.

Edward H. Livingston, MD, FACS

Chair in Surgery

Division of Gastrointestinal and Endocrine Surgery

University of Texas

Southwestern Medical Center

Dallas

TX

Disclosures

EHL declares that he has no competing interests.

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