Viral gastroenteritis

Last reviewed: 1 Nov 2022
Last updated: 04 Nov 2022

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • abdominal pain
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • malaise
  • anorexia
  • fever
  • volume depletion
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • exposure to contaminated food or water sources
  • close contact with infected people
  • poor hygiene
  • extreme ages
  • HIV infection
  • organ transplantation
  • chronic illness
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • clinical diagnosis
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • basic metabolic profile
  • renal function
  • stool rapid antigen testing
  • stool reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or multiplex PCR
  • stool viral culture
  • stool electron microscopy
  • stool for culture, ova, and parasites
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

mild to moderate volume depletion

severe volume depletion

Contributors

Authors

Ali Hassoun, MD, FACP, FIDSA, AAHIVS

Infectious Disease Specialist

Alabama Infectious Diseases Center

Huntsville

AL

Disclosures

AH declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Ali Hassoun would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Kyle E. Brown, Dr Easwaran Variyam, Dr Robert Schiller, Dr Srikrishna Nagri, and Dr Sury Anand, the previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

KEB, EV, RS, SN, and SA declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Alexandre R. Marra, MD

Department of Infectious Diseases

Universidade Federal de São Paulo

São Paulo

Brazil

Disclosures

ARM declares that he has no competing interests.

  • Differentials

    • Bacterial gastroenteritis
    • Protozoal infections
    • Helminthic infections
    More Differentials
  • Guidelines

    • ACR appropriateness criteria: right upper quadrant pain
    • Norovirus
    More Guidelines
  • Patient leaflets

    Diarrhea in adults

    Diarrhea in children

    More Patient leaflets
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