Last reviewed: 12 May 2021
Last updated: 28 Apr 2020



History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • abdominal pain

Other diagnostic factors

  • malaise
  • anorexia
  • fever
  • volume depletion

Risk factors

  • exposure to contaminated food or water sources
  • close contact with infected people
  • poor hygiene
  • extreme ages
  • HIV infection
  • organ transplantation
  • chronic illness

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • basic metabolic profile
  • renal function
  • stool rapid antigen testing
  • stool reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or multiplex PCR
  • stool viral culture
  • stool electron microscopy
  • stool for culture, ova, and parasites

Treatment algorithm


Infectious Disease Specialist

Alabama Infectious Diseases Center




AH declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Ali Hassoun would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Kyle E. Brown, Dr Easwaran Variyam, Dr Robert Schiller, Dr Srikrishna Nagri, and Dr Sury Anand, the previous contributors to this topic.


KEB, EV, RS, SN, and SA declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Department of Infectious Diseases

Universidade Federal de São Paulo

São Paulo



ARM declares that he has no competing interests.

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