Last reviewed: 20 Sep 2020
Last updated: 19 Nov 2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • vasculitis
  • dental caries
  • increased oral fungal and bacterial infections
  • arthralgia
  • myalgia
  • arthritis
  • kidney disease
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • corneal ulceration
  • no saliva pool
  • enlarged salivary glands
  • facial pain
  • burning mouth syndrome
  • history of venous thromboembolism
  • history of aortic aneurysm or dissection

Risk factors

  • female
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)
  • HLA class II markers
  • genetic inheritance
  • age peaks in 20s to 30s and after menopause

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • Schirmer test
  • anti-60 kD (SS-A) Ro and anti-La (SS-B)
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • sialometry
  • minor salivary gland biopsy
  • lissamine green test
  • fluorescein corneal staining test
  • parotid sialography
  • salivary gland technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy
  • skin biopsy
  • angiography
  • urinalysis
  • serum electrolytes
More investigations to consider

Emerging tests

  • MRI salivary glands
  • ultrasound salivary glands
More emerging tests

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Professor of Research

Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Department of Medicine

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Affiliate

Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation

Research Associate

Department of Veterans Affairs

Oklahoma City

OK

Disclosures

BTK is an author of several articles cited in this topic.

Professor and Director of Fellowship Program

Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Department of Medicine

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Member of Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation

Associate Chief of Staff for Research

Department of Veterans Affairs

Oklahoma City

OK

Disclosures

RHS received honorarium and travel expenses from Eisai Korea for speaking at the Korean Rheumatology Association meeting. RHS has been a paid consultant for UCB in regards to Sjogren's and he has received honorarium for speaking on Sjogren's at Lily. Both instances included travel expenses. RHS is an author of several articles cited in this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Head of Unit

Queen Elizabeth Hospital

Woodville South

South Australia

Australia

Disclosures

MR declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Medicine

Johns Hopkins University

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

AB declares that he has no competing interests.

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