Primary prevention

Pneumonia prevention is focused on the pathogens that cause disease, through specific vaccination or by managing the risks associated with disease development. The main means of prevention are influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and management of smoking cessation. [ Cochrane Clinical Answers logo ]

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) vaccination recommendations:[64]

  • Adults who are immunocompetent and ages 65 years or older should receive one dose of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) if they have not received PCV13 previously, followed by one dose of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) at least 1 year after PCV13 and at least 5 years after the last dose of PPSV23. Patients who have received PPSV23 previously (but not PCV13), should receive one dose of PCV13 at least one year after PPSV23. Adults ages 19 to 64 years with specific comorbidities, and adults ages 19 years and older with immunocompromising conditions, cerebrospinal fluid leak, or a cochlear implant should also be vaccinated according to the current schedule.

  • All patients should receive an annual influenza vaccination with an age-appropriate formulation, provided they do not have a contraindication.

  • Further detail on current vaccination schedules and special patient populations can be found in the latest ACIP vaccination schedule.

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