In 2019, lower respiratory tract infections affected 489 million people worldwide, and were the cause for approximately 2.5 million deaths. Children <5 years old and adults >70 years old were the populations most affected by pneumonia. Mortality was highest in patients aged >70 years old. Lower respiratory tract infections were the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide in 2019.[3][4]

In the US, the annual incidence of CAP has been estimated at 24.8 cases in 10,000 adults.[5] Pneumonia and influenza, when considered together, were the eighth leading cause of death (13.5 deaths in 100,000 population) and the leading infectious cause in the US in 2016.[6] In the US, the annual rate of hospitalization for adults ≥65 years old ranges from 847 to 3500 per 100,000 persons; the rate is lower for adults <65 years old (89 to 1138 per 100,000 persons).[7]

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