Last reviewed: 21 Sep 2021
Last updated: 04 Jun 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Iatrogenic postsurgical hypoparathyroidism
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Hypomagnesemia
  • Hyperventilation

Uncommon

  • Isolated hypoparathyroidism
  • Pseudohypoparathyroidism
  • Autoimmune hypoparathyroidism
  • HIV-related hypoparathyroidism
  • Hypermagnesemia
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Hypercalciuria
  • Sepsis
  • Burns
  • Renal failure
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Extensive osteoblastic skeletal metastasis
  • Hungry bone syndrome
  • Drug-induced hypocalcemia
  • Multiple transfusions
  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • Drug interference with assay
  • Infiltrative hypoparathyroidism
  • DiGeorge syndrome and other developmental complexes
  • Rhabdomyolysis
  • Tumor lysis syndrome
  • Constitutively activating calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) abnormalities (mutations or autoimmune activation)
  • Vitamin D resistance or receptor mutations

Contributors

Authors

John Ayuk, MD, FRCP

Consultant Endocrinologist/Service Lead for Endocrinology

Department of Endocrinology

Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre

Queen Elizabeth Hospital

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

JA declares that he has no competing interests.

Neil Gittoes, BSc, MB ChB, PhD, FRCP

Consultant Endocrinologist and Honorary Professor of Endocrinology

Department of Endocrinology

Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre

Queen Elizabeth Hospital

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

NG has received payment for consultancy work and attendance to a European meeting for Takeda on hypoparathyroidism. NG is a Global Scientific Co-Chair of the PARADIGM disease registry in hypoparathyroidism. NG is an author of references cited in this topic.

Acknowledgements

Dr John Ayuk and Prof Neil Gittoes would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Berhane Seyoum, a previous contributor to this topic. BS declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Shehzad Basaria, MD

Assistant Professor

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

SB declares that he has no competing interests.

Lawrence Kirschner, MD, PhD

Associate Professor of Medicine

The Ohio State University

Columbus

OH

Disclosures

LK declares that he has no competing interests.

Richard Quinton, MD

Consultant and Senior Lecturer

Endocrine Unit

Newcastle University and Royal Victoria Infirmary

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

UK

Disclosures

RQ has been reimbursed by Amgen, the manufacturer of cinacalcet, for attending a conference and for giving an educational seminar (total under £1,200 over past 3 years).

  • Evaluation of hypocalcemia images

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