Last reviewed: 28 Sep 2021
Last updated: 03 Aug 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • abdominal discomfort
  • alteration of bowel habits associated with pain
  • abdominal bloating or distention
  • normal exam of abdomen

Other diagnostic factors

  • passage of mucus with stool
  • urgency of defecation

Risk factors

  • physical and sexual abuse
  • PTSD
  • age <50 years
  • female sex
  • previous enteric infection
  • family history
  • family and job stress

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • fecal occult blood test
  • serologic tests for celiac disease
  • fecal calprotectin
  • fecal lactoferrin
  • serum C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • serum fibroblast growth factor 19
  • 23‐seleno‐25‐homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) test
  • 48-hour stool collection for total bile acids
  • empiric trial of bile acid binder
  • hydrogen/methane breath test
  • stool tests for Giardia lamblia
  • plain abdominal radiograph
  • colonoscopy
  • flexible sigmoidoscopy

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Ned Snyder, MD, MACP, AGAF

Chief of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Kelsey-Seybold Clinic

Clinical Professor of Medicine

Baylor College of Medicine

Houston

Adjunct Professor of Medicine

University of Texas Medical Branch

Galveston

TX

Disclosures

NS declares that he is on the board of the Kelsey Research Foundation, a non-profit organization that sponsors research in the intestinal microbiome; he does not receive direct or indirect compensation. NS received a grant from the State of Texas to study genetic factors in the development of hepatocellular cancer in Hispanic people.

Peer reviewers

Douglas Drossman, MD

Professor of Medicine and Psychiatry

School of Medicine

Co-Director

UNC Center for Functional GI and Motility Disorders

Chapel Hill

NC

Disclosures

DD declares that he has no competing interests.

Simon McLaughlin, MBBS

Research Fellow

Department of Gastroenterology

St Mark's Hospital

Northwick Park

Harrow

UK

Disclosures

SM declares that he has no competing interests.

Horace Williams, MBBS

Clinical Research Fellow

Division of Medicine

Imperial College

London

UK

Disclosures

HW declares that he has no competing interests.

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