Last reviewed: 25 Sep 2021
Last updated: 08 Oct 2020

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Colloid nodule
  • Thyroid adenoma or hyperplastic nodule, single (solid or complex)
  • Nontoxic multinodular goiter
  • Differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary, follicular)

Uncommon

  • Toxic adenoma, single
  • Toxic multinodular goiter
  • Medullary thyroid cancer
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer
  • Lymphoma
  • Simple epithelial-lined thyroid cyst
  • Thyroglossal duct cyst
  • Acute suppurative thyroiditis
  • Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis
  • Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto) thyroiditis
  • Painless lymphocytic thyroiditis
  • Graves disease
  • Enlarged parathyroid gland(s): benign
  • Parathyroid carcinoma
  • Metastasis from nonthyroidal malignancies

Contributors

Authors

Brendan C. Stack Jr, MD, FACS, FACE

Chair, Publications Committee

American Thyroid Association

Executive Board, Endocrine Section

American Head and Neck Society

Professor

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)

UAMS Thyroid Center

Little Rock

AR

Disclosures

BCS is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Acknowledgements

Dr Brendan C. Stack would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Steven P. Hodak and Dr Hussain Mahmud, the previous contributors to this topic. SPH and HM declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Renee E. Amori, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Division of Endocrinology

Drexel University College of Medicine

Philadelphia

PA

Disclosures

REA declares that she has no competing interests.

Paul V. Carroll, MD, MRCPI, FRCP

Consultant Endocrinologist

Guy’s & St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

PVC declares that he has no competing interests.

Richard Bliss, MB, FRCS

Consultant Endocrine Surgeon

Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust

Newcastle

UK

Disclosures

RB declares that he has no competing interests.

Haruko Akatsu, MD, MS

Clinical Associate Professor

Medical Director

Thyroid Cancer Program

Stanford University Medical Center

Stanford

CA

Disclosures

HA declares that she has no competing interests.

  • Evaluation of thyroid mass images

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