Last reviewed: 17 Sep 2021
Last updated: 18 May 2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • positive symptoms
  • negative symptoms
  • disorder of perception
  • delusions
  • disturbances in emotions
  • disorders of stream and form of thought
  • cognitive abnormalities
  • deficit symptoms

Other diagnostic factors

  • neurological deficit
  • family history
  • disorders of behavior

Risk factors

  • family history of schizophrenia
  • substance use
  • age of the father at patient's birth
  • psychological stress
  • environment

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • urine drug screen
  • sexually transmitted disease screening
  • complete blood count
  • thyroid function tests

Investigations to consider

  • laboratory studies to exclude organic causes
  • CT/MRI head
  • EEG

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Robert G. Bota, MD
Robert G. Bota

Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry

University of California

Irvine

CA

Disclosures

RGB declares that he has no competing interests.

Adrian Preda, MD
Adrian Preda

Health Sciences Professor

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior

University of California, Irvine School of Medicine

Irvine

CA

Disclosures

AP declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Kemal Sagduyu, MD

Professor of Psychiatry

University of Missouri Kansas City

Kansas City

MO

Disclosures

KS declares that he has no competing interests.

William T. Regenold, MDCM

Associate Professor of Psychiatry

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

WTR declares that he has no competing interests.

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