Evaluation of nausea and vomiting in children

Last reviewed: 30 Oct 2023
Last updated: 17 Aug 2021




  • Viral gastroenteritis
  • Bacterial gastroenteritis
  • Giardiasis
  • Migraine
  • Motion/travel sickness
  • Labyrinthitis
  • Concussion (mild traumatic brain injury)
  • Meningitis
  • Brain tumor
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Pyloric stenosis
  • Intussusception
  • Intestinal malrotation
  • Small bowel atresia
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Cyclic vomiting
  • Gastroparesis
  • Constipation
  • Functional dyspepsia
  • Testicular torsion
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Nephrolithiasis
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Acute appendicitis
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Food allergy
  • Eosinophilic disease
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Toxic ingestion
  • Medication adverse effects
Full details


  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
  • Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension)
  • Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
  • Addison disease
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • Protein metabolism disorders
  • Carbohydrate metabolism disorders
  • Postural orthostatic tachycardia
  • Hirschsprung disease
  • Ovarian torsion
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
  • Small bowel lymphoma
  • Rumination
  • Factitious disorder
  • Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome
  • Otitis media
  • Pneumonia
Full details



John E. Fortunato, MD
John E. Fortunato

Professor of Pediatrics

Neurointestinal and Motility Program Director

Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago




JEF is on the advisory board (non-compensated) for the Gastroparesis Patient Association for Cures and Treatments (G-PACT).


Dr John E. Fortunato would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Mary K. Rogers Boruta and Dr Roberto A. Gomez-Suarez, previous contributors to this topic. MKRB is a consultant for Medspira on pediatric integration for anorectal manometry by assisting with training providers on device use, for which she receives no compensation. There is no contractual agreement to disseminate product information. RAG-S declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

David A. Bergman, MD

Associate Professor

Division of General Pediatrics

Stanford School of Medicine

Palo Alto



DAB declares that he has no competing interests.

Prateek D. Wali, MD

Assistant Professor

Pediatric Gastroenterology

Golisano Children's Hospital

Upstate Medical University




PDW declares that he has no competing interests.

Alistair G. Sutcliffe, MB ChB, MD, PhD, FRCP, FRCPCH, PG DIP CT

Reader in General Paediatrics

Honorary Consultant Paediatrician

University College London Hospitals and Great Ormond Street Hospitals

Associate Director

Gap Unit

Institute of Child Health

University College London




AGS is developing a project on the use of an antiemesis drug for gastroenteritis but has no other connection with the topic per se.

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